Philosopher, Scholar, Poet (c. 1265–c. 1321)
Dante Alighieri was a famous Italian poet , philosopher and scholar. His best known work is an epic poem name” The Divine Comedy”. This is famous as the best work in Italian and Dante is famous as “the Father of the Italian language”.
Dante’s Birth and Early Life
Dante Alighieri was born in Florence, Italy. The Exact date of birth is not known but it is generally believed that Dante was born around 1265. Dante’s father name Alighiero di Bellincione, a White Guelph. Dante’s mother name was Bella. She died when Dante was not more than ten years old. Dante married Gemma Donati when he was only 12 years old. Dante was very The first marriage was arranged one but Dante was fallen in love with Beatrice Portinari, , the consequences of this love led to the creation of Divine Comdey.
With the unexpected death of Beatrice in 1290, Dante wrote Vita Nuova (The New Life), in which Dante mentioned grievous story of love for Beatrice. Dante’s first book The new Life was in Italian., while all other work that he wrote was in latin.
After the death of Beatrice Dante started the study of philosophy and the maneuver of the Florentine political condition. In 1302 Dante wrote a lot of work on the Florentine’s political condtion and on pope’s jurisdiction. and in result he was exiled from florentine by the leaders of the Black Guelphs
Dante’s Education and Work
There is not much information about Dante’s education. he probably stated study from his home or from a chapter school in Florentine. He studied Tuscan poetry and also studied Provencal poetry.Dante fell in love with Beatrice Portinari at the age of 9. Dante had some unique feelings regarding his love with Beatrice. which led him to create “Dolce Stil novo”a style which created by Dante himslef.aboout fifty poetical commentaries by Dante are known (the so-called Rime, rhymes), and other are included in Vita Nuova and Convivio. some other work reported regarding painting and music.
Dante’s Exile from Florence and his Death.
In March 1302, Dante, and the Gherardini family, was sentenced to exile for two years and imposed a large fine to pay.Dante was charged with corruption by the Black Guelphs, at the time when he was serving in Florence as city prior. So he was codemned to exile. when Dante was exiled from Florence he wrote The Divine Comedy. He took part in the fights against the Black Guelphs to regain power but failed due to treason.He travelled to Verona and then to Sarzana and Later he went to Lucca where he lived with a woman called Gentucca and Dante mentioned this in Purgatorio, XXIV, 37.In 1310, The advancement of the troops of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII of Luxembourg to Italy brought a hope to Dante to retake florence from Black Guelphs.In this time Dante wrote De Monarchia.
In 1312, Henry VII defeated the Black Guelphs but Dante was not involved in it. Dante returned to Verona. In 1315, Florence was compelled by Uguccione della Faggiuola for the amnesty of the exiles but with very hard condtions which Dante refused and he prefered to remain in exile.The exile was a form of death for Dante as he was living without his identity and heritage. Dante mentioned the pain of exile in Paradiso, XVII (55–60).
In 1318, on the invitation of Prince Guido Novello da Polenta, Dante went to Ravenna. He wrote his final work of Paradiso. Dante died in 1321 at the age of 56, and was buried in Ravenna at the Church of San Pier Maggiore (later called San Francesco). Dante’s tomb was built in 1483, by Bernardo Bembo, praetor of Venice.
Since Dante’s death lot of commentries has been written on Dante’s work till now and his work is a great part of the Western canon. T.S. Eliot, who was a big fan of Dante, he awarded Dante the same a class with , Shakespeare, saying that they ”divide the modern world between them. There is no third.”